IPO An initial public offering (IPO) refers to the process of issuing shares of a private corporation to the public in a new stock issuance. This allows the organizations to raise capital from public investors. The purpose of IPO could be various, but the primary being to raise capital for business. IPO’s in 2021 The year started with IRFC IPO. As I write this article, Zomato was listed. 5 more months to go.